Skip to main content

Health Law & Leadership of Healthcare Organizations Program: APA Examples

Resources for students in the joint masters program at UC San Diego and Cal Western law school as well as the Leadership in Healthcare Organizations program from the UCSD School of Medicine.

Citing Images or Figures

APA Citation Style: Images

The best advice I've seen comes from Yahoo Answers - complete with reference to the APA manual.  The high points are: 

  • Add a short caption describing the image, plus
  • Add, Note: Title of book (p #), by Author [initials & last name], Year, Place of publication: Publisher. Copyright Year by Name of Copyright Holder.
  • Watch for what needs to be italicized
  • List book in the References list.

 

Referencing Unpublished Works

Information you use for your write ups must credit where that info comes from, even if it is not formally published, and could include your notes from a lecture or a personal email or letter.  A typical lecture/lecturer's handouts or slides are a bit different and can be cited much like other material.

 APA Style

Emails or Your Lecture Notes

Either of these are considered a "personal communication" simply because it is not public or "recoverable" data.  It is simply referenced in the text of the document and does not have any entry in the bibliography. 

Lecturer Slides or Handouts

Can be cited like other items (books or journals), so in the text, use author & date.  In the bibliography, Include 5 pieces of information:

  • Author (in other words, the lecturer)
  • Date
  • Title 
  • Brackets with description (i.e., [powerpoint slides])
  • Organization (e.g., city, & country : university, department)

To see what that looks like, check the list of examples.

Examples: Author Date Styles

 

Book Section

 

Bibliography

 

Mirowski GW, P. E. (2008). Chapter 74. biology and pathology of the oral cavity". In Wolff K, Goldsmith LA, Katz SI, Gilchrest B, Paller AS, Leffell DJ (Ed.), Fitzpatrick's dermatology in general medicine (7th ed., ). New York: McGraw Hill.

 

 

How the Citation is Referenced (in the text of the document)

 

(Mirowski GW, 2008)

Up to Date - Cite it like a Book Section

 

Bibliography

 

Marion, DW. Diaphragmatic pacing. In: UpToDate, Post TW (Ed), UpToDate, Waltham, MA. (Accessed on November 25, 2013.)

 

 

How the Citation is Referenced (in the text of the document)

 

(Marion DW, 2008)

Book, Whole

 

Bibliography

 

Moore, E. E., Feliciano, D. V., Mattox, K. L., STAT!Ref, & Teton Data Systems. (2008). Trauma (6th ed.)New York: McGraw-Hill, Medical Pub. Division. Retrieved from http://online.statref.com/document.aspx?FxId=74&DocID=1&grpalias=

 

 

How the Citation is Reference (in the text of the document)

 

(Moore, Feliciano, Mattox, STAT!Ref, & Teton Data Systems, 2008)

Journal Article, Print

 

Bibliography

 

Bravo, P., Edwards, A., Rollnick, S., & Elwyn, G. (2010). Tough decisions faced by people living with HIV: A literature review of psychosocial problems. AIDS Reviews, 12(2), 76-88.

 

 

How the Citation is Referenced (in the text of the document)

 

(Bravo, Edwards, Rollnick, & Elwyn, 2010)

Journal Article, Online

 

Bibliography

 

Ku, G. (2008). Learning to de-escalate: The effects of regret in escalation of commitment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 105(2), 221-232. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2007.08.002.

 

 

How the Citation is Referenced (in the text of the document)

 

(Ku, 2010)

Web Pages

 

In general, the principles are the same - the things to include areL the author, title, and date published when available. For undated materials, include the date the resource was accessedThe following is an example of a "professional" wepage.

 

Bibliography

 

National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (2008).  Biofuels. Retrieved May 6, 2008 . from http://www.nrel.gov/learning/re_biofuels.html   

 

  How the Citation is Referenced (in the text of the document)

 

 (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2008)

Images

 

Citing images can be a bit trickyFor more details, please see the side bar above

 

Bibliography

 Cite the book or journal from which the image came.

 

 

How the Citation is Reference (in the text of the document)  

 

See the Citing Images side bar above for details

Emails, Letters, or Personal Communications

 

Bibliography

 

None -- 

Emails and other personal communications are referenced in the text only - with no entry in the bibliography.

 

How the Citation is Referenced (in the text of the document)

 

Depending upon how you write, the email author's name will be either inside the parentheses or outside it.

 

(V.-G. Nguyen, personal communication, September 28, 1998),  or

T. K. Lutes wrote, …     (personal communication, April 18, 2001)

Lecturer’s Presentation

 

Bibliography

 

Ball, E. D. (2011).  Blood and Marrow Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. [Powerpoint slides]. La Jolla, USA: UC San Diego, Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

 

How the Citation is Reference (in the text of the document)

 

(Ball, 2011)

Course Syllabus

 

Bibliography

 

Kritchevsky, M. (2013).  Course Syllabus for Mind, Brain, and Behavior I. UC San Diego School of Medicine.

 

How the Citation is Reference (in the text of the document)

 

(Kritchevsky, 2013)

Need more details or examples?

 

For a different type of reference, see the Cornell Library’s guide, APA Citation Style