Skip to main content

PBL Information Resources and Tools for the First Year: Numbered Style Example

This guide provides resources and strategies for finding background, clinical and drug information, including evidence-based medicine strategies and specific information for problem-based learning exercises.

Citing Images or Figures

Numbered Citation Style: Images

Citing images are a little more difficult to give definitive guidelines.  Images (figures, charts, etc.) should be references just like any other aspects of your paper.  Whether from books or journals, the usual format for other types of things will work with slight modification.

  • In text, Figure with a number - add at the end, the figure number, chapter name and page number
  • In text, Figure without a number - add a description of the image and the page number
  • In bibliography, for full details and examples of many types from journals, see Citing Medicine, Chapter 1
  • In bibliography, for details and examples for books, see Citing Medicine, Chapter 2

    Referencing Unpublished Works

    Information you use for your write ups must credit where that info comes from, even if it is not formally published, and could include your notes from a lecture or a personal email or letter.  A typical lecture/lecturer's handouts or slides are a bit different and can be cited much like other material.

    Numbered Style  

    Everything - email, letters, lectures - are referenced exactly the same, meaning, no bibliography entry.  Any unpublished items are referenced only in the text of the document.  The author of the info is usually mentioned in the text and the supporting information is given between parentheses.  Information needed include:

    • Date of item
    • Indicate if it was oral or written (no details on best method for that)
    • Affiliation of info giver (establish her/his relevance or authority)

    To see what that looks like, check the list of examples.

     

    Examples: Numbered Style

    Book Section

    Bibliography

    1. Mirowski GW PE. Chapter 74. biology and pathology of the oral cavity". In: Wolff K, Goldsmith LA, Katz SI, Gilchrest B, Paller AS, Leffell DJ, editor. Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. 7th ed. New York: McGraw Hill; 2008.

     

    How the Citation is Referenced (in the text of the document)

    (1, 3-6)

    Up to Date - cite it like a book section

    Bibliography

    1. Marion, DW. Diaphragmatic pacing. In: UpToDate, Post TW (Ed), UpToDate, Waltham, MA. (Accessed on November 25, 2013.)

    How the Citation is Referenced (in the text of the document)

    (1, 3-6)

    Book, Whole

    Bibliography

    1. Moore EE, Feliciano DV, Mattox KL, STAT!Ref, Teton Data Systems. Trauma. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, Medical Pub. Division; 2008.

     

    How the Citation is Reference (in the text of the document)

    (1, 3-6)

    Journal Article, Print

    Bibliography

    1.       Bravo P, Edwards A, Rollnick S, Elwyn G. Tough decisions faced by people living with HIV: A literature review of psychosocial problems. AIDS Rev. 2010 Apr-Jun;12(2):76-88.

     

    How the Citation is Referenced (in the text of the document)

    (1, 3-6)

    Journal Article, Online

    Bibliography

    1.    Li L, Liang L, Wu Z, Lin C, Wen Y. Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in china. International Journal of Psychology [Internet]. 2009 Dec [cited 2/2/2011];44(6):443-50. Available from:

    http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=

    a909314565~db=all 

     

    How the Citation is Referenced (in the text of the document)

    (1, 3-6)

    Web Pages

    There are so many types of web pages, I am a little leery of giving an example to represent all types.  Please be sure to check the various ways a web page could be cited - I think there is one for every type of page.  The following is an example of a government page. 

    Bibliography

    1. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Index to drug-specific information [Internet]. Silver Spring (MD): U.S. Food and Drug Administration; [updated 2009 Jun 4]. : Sleep disorder (sedative-hypnotic) drug information; [updated 2009 May 21; cited 2009 Jun 10]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformation

    forPatientsandProviders/ucm101557.htm 

     

      How the Citation is Referenced (in the text of the document)

    (1, 3-6)

    Images

    Images from a book or journal would be considered part of that book and cited as such - including the page number.  Some images or figures are numbered, others may not be, so if the following examples don't seem quite right for the one you have, please check Citing Images the side bar for links to lots more examples.  In text citations are a little trickier, see the side bar above for some suggestions.

    Bibliography

    Book:  1. Thibodeau GA, Patton KT. Anatomy & physiology. 5th ed. St. Louis (MO): Mosby; c2003. Figure 6-13, Onycholysis; p. 179.

    Journal:  1. Wood RH, Gardner RE, Ferachi KA, King C, Ermolao A, Cherry KE, Cress ME,Jazwinski SM. Physical function and quality of life in older adults: sex differences. South Med J. 2005 May;98(5):504-12. Figure 2a, Physical function vs. SF-36 PCS in women; p. 510.

     

    How the Citation is Reference (in the text of the document)  

    (1, 3-6)

    Emails, Letters, Personal Communications, & Lectures

    References that are unpublished (and never will be published) like personal communications are often not included in the reference list.  Most authorities suggest inserting it within the text itself and not as a formal reference at the end.  Examples from Citing Medicine are below.

    Bibliography

    None -- 

    Emails and other personal communications are referenced in the text only - with no entry in the bibliography.

     

     How the Email is Referenced (in the text of the document)

    … and most of these meningiomas proved to be inoperable (2003 letter from RS Grant to me; unreferenced) while the few that …

    How the Lecture is Referenced (in the text of the document)

     ... “According to Dr. Schrimsher (PubMed lecture, Sep 2003, Samford University, McWhorter School of Pharmacy), controlled vocabulary should always be used first prior to searching any database.”

    Course Syllabus

    Bibliography

    Kritchevsky, M. School of Medicine, UC San Diego. [Syllabus of Mind, Brain, & Behavior I] 2013

     

    How the Citation is Reference (in the text of the document)

     (1, 3-6)

    Need more details or examples?

    Extensive details and examples of various types of references can be found in "Citing Medicine" The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 2nd edition