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Worldwide Elections Guide: Lijphart Elections Archive

The Lijphart Elections Archive is a static research collection of district level election results for approximately 350 national legislative elections in 26 countries that was maintained through 2003.

When Arend Lijphart began his comparative study of electoral systems in the early 1980s, he discovered that no library anywhere in the world had a collection of the detailed statistics of national elections in democratic countries -- although such statistics were being collected by many government and non-government agencies and, at least in principle, obtainable from these agencies. This was the origin of the Elections Archive in the University Library of the University of California, San Diego. The objective of the Archive is to systematically collect election statistics in as much detail as possible, including, as a minimum, the results at the level of the individual election districts in which votes are converted into seats.

The original scope of the Archive was the national election results in hard-copy format for the lower or only house of the legislature and for any directly elected upper house in the twenty-seven older democracies from 1945 on (the West European democracies plus the United States, Canada, Costa Rica, India, Israel, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand). The scope has expanded in several directions: more countries, a longer time span, sub-national as well as national elections, and data in machine-readable format.

Arend Lijphart is Research Professor Emeritus of Political Science at the University of California, San Diego. He is the author of Electoral Systems and Party Systems: A Comparative Study of Twenty-Seven Democracies, 1945-1990 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994) and many articles on elections and electoral systems in Electoral Studies and other journals. The Archive Director is Gary W. Cox, Department of Political Science, University of California, San Diego.

If you want to see the Archive's website in its original form, it's on Internet Archive

Data is also available to download in the Cox-Lijphart Archive Dataverse.

The Lijphart Elections Archive is a closed collection, and the most recent publications are from the 1990s. Search Roger for additional (newer) elections statistics publications

Lijphart Elections Archives Publications

Australian Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Australian general elections
  2. The ... Elections in the Northern Territory
  3. The ... Elections in South Australia
  4. Election statistics. Result of count, Senate and House of Representatives
  5. Election statistics: South Australia
  6. Election statistics: Tasmania
  7. Election statistics: Australian Capital Territory, Northern Territory
  8. Election statistics: New South Wales
  9. Election statistics: Western Australia
  10. Election statistics. Full distribution of preferences, House of Representatives
  11. Election statistics: Victoria
  12. Election statistics: Queensland
  13. A handbook of Australian government and politics, 1975-1984
  14. A handbook Of Australian government And politics, 1890-1964
  15. A handbook Of Australian government And politics, 1965-1974
  16. Statistical returns. State of Western Australia : showing the voting within each subdivision in relation to the Senate election ... and the general elections for the House of Representatives
  17. Statistical returns. State of Queensland : showing the voting within each subdivision in the general elections for the House of Representatives ... and the Senate election
  18. Statistical returns. State of Tasmania : showing the voting within each subdivision in relation to the Senate election ... and the general elections for the House of Representatives
  19. Statistical returns. State of Victoria : showing the voting within each subdivision in relation to the Senate election ... and the general elections for the House of Representatives
  20. Statistical returns. State of South Australia : showing the voting within each subdivision in relation to the Senate election ... and the general elections for the House of Representatives
  21. Statistical returns. State of New South Wales : showing the voting within each subdivision in relation to the Senate election ... and the general elections for the House of Representatives
  22. Statistical returns : in relation to the Senate elections, 1946 : the general elections for the House of Representatives, 1946 and the submission to the electors of proposed laws for the alteration of the Constitution, entitled, (1) "Constitution alteration (social services) 1946", (2) "Constitution alteration (organized marketing of primary products) 1946", and (3) "Constitution alteration (industrial employment) 1946", together with summaries of elections and referendums 1903-1946 / issued under the authority of Herbert Victor Johnson, Minister of State for the Interior, by V.F. Turner, Chief Electoral Officer of the Commonwealth
  23. A summary of Commonwealth election and referendum statistics, 1901-1975
  24. Voting for the Australian House of Representatives, 1901-1964

 

Austrian Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Die Nationalratswahl

 

Belgium Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Atlas des élections belges, 1919-1954
  2. Elections législatives, 13/12/1987, Sénat : résultats officiels
  3. Elections législatives, 13/12/1987, Chambre : résultats officiels
  4. Elections législatives du 13 octrobre 1985, Chambre des représentants : résultats définitifs
  5. Elections législatives du 13 octobre 1985, Sénat : résultats définitifs
  6. Parlementsverkiezingen, uitslagen der verkiezingen van 17 december 1978 : volledige vernieuwing van Kamer en Senaat = Elections législatives, résultats des élections du 17 décembre 1978 : renouvellement intégral de la Chambre et du Sénat
  7. Parlementsverkiezingen, uitslagen der verkiezingen van 17 april 1977 : volledige vernieuwing van Kamer en Senaat = Elections législatives, résultats des élections du 17 avril 1977 : renouvellement intégral de la Chambre et du Sénat
  8. Parlementsverkiezingen, uitslagen der verkiezingen van 13 december 1987 : volledige vernieuwing van de Senaat = Elections législatives, résultats des élections du 17 décembre 1987 : renouvellement intégral du Sénat
  9. Parlementsverkiezingen, uitslagen der verkiezingen van 13 december 1987 : volledige vernieuwing van de Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers = Elections législatives, résultats des élections du 13 décembre 1987 : renouvellement intégral de la Chambre des représentants
  10. Parlementsverkiezingen, uitslagen der verkiezingen van 13 oktober 1985 : volledige vernieuwing van de Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers = Elections législatives, résultats des élections du 13 octobre 1985 : renouvellement intégral de la Chambre des représentants
  11. Parlementsverkiezingen, uitslagen der verkiezingen van 13 oktober 1985 : volledige vernieuwing van de Senaat = Elections législatives, résultats des élections du 13 octobre 1985 : renouvellement intégral du Sénat
  12. Parlementsverkiezingen, uitslagen der verkiezingen van 8 november 1981 : volledige vernieuwing van Kamer en Senaat = Elections législatives, résultats des élections du 8 novembre 1981 : renouvellement intégral de la Chambre et du Sénat
  13. Parlementsverkiezingen, uitslagen der verkiezingen van 24 november 1991 : volledige vernieuwing van de Senaat = Elections législatives, résultats des élections du 24 novembre 1991 : renouvellement intégral du Sénat
  14. Parlementsverkiezingen, uitslagen der verkiezingen van 24 november 1991 : volledige vernieuwing van de Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers = Elections législatives, résultats des élections du 24 novembre 1991 : renouvellement intégral de la Chambre des représentants
  15. Parlementsverkiezingen, uitslagen van de verkiezingen van 11 maart 1974 : volledige vernieuwing van Kamer en Senaat = Elections législatives, résultats des élections du 11 mars 1974 : renouvellement intégral de la Chambre et du Sénat
  16. Parlements-verkiezingen : Senaat : officiële uitkomsten der verkiezingen van 23 mei 1965 en van 31 maart 1968 = Elections legislatives : Senat : resultats officiels des elections du 23 mai 1965 et du 31 mars 1968

 

Belize Election Statistics Publications:

  1. General elections results, June 30, 1993

 

Brazil Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Dados estatísticos
  2. Eleições de 15/11/1982 : resumo oficial da apuração e relação nominal dos eleitos e suplentes
  3. Resultados das eleições dos senhores deputados realizadas em 3 de outubro de 1990
  4. Sistema de informaçoes eleitorais : eleições de 1978 : relatorio de resultados globais a nivel de candidato

 

Canada Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Canada votes
  2. Canada votes, 1935-1988
  3. Report of the Chief Electoral Officer

 

Costa Rica Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Cómputo de votos y declaratorias de elección para presidente y vicepresidentes, diputados a la Asamblea Legislativa, regidores y síndicos municipales : elecciones del 2 de febrero de 1986
  2. Computo de votos y declaratorias de elección : para presidente y vicepresidentes, diputados a la Asamblea Legislativa, regidores y síndicos municipales : elecciones del 3 de febrero de 1974 y elecciones municipales en el nuevo cantón de Corredores
  3. Cómputo de votos y declaratorias de elección : para presidente y vicepresidentes, diputados a la Asamblea Legislativa, regidores y síndicos municipales : elecciones del 7 de febrero de 1982
  4. Cómputo de votos y declaratorias de elección : para presidente y vicepresidentes, diputados a la Asamblea Legislativa, regidores y síndicos municipales : elecciones del 4 de febrero de 1990
  5. Cómputo de votos y declaratorias de elección : para presidente y vicepresidentes, diputados a la Asamblea Legislativa, regidores y síndicos municipales : elecciones del 5 de febrero de 1978
  6. Cómputo de votos y declaratorias de elección para presidente y vicepresidentes, diputados a la Asamblea Legislativa, regidores y síndicos municipales : 1953, 1958, 1962, 1966
  7. Cómputo de votos y declaratorias de elección : para presidente y vicepresidentes, diputados a la asamblea legislativa, regidores y síndicos municipales : elecciones del 1. de febrero de 1970 y elecciones municipales en los nuevos cantones de Upala, Los Chiles, Guatuso, La Cruz, Talamanca y Matina
  8. Elecciones en cifras : 1953, 1958, 1962, 1966, 1970, 1974, 1978

 

Denmark Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Statistiske efterretninger
  2. Statistiske efterretninger. Befolkning og valg / Danmarks statistik

 

Finland Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Kansanedustajain vaalit = Riksdagsmannavalen = Parliamentary elections
  2. Vaalitilasto. A: eduskuntavaalit = Valstatistik. A: riksdagsvalen = General election in Finland
  3. Valtiolliset vaalit: Kansanedestajain vaalit = Statliga val: Riksdagsmannavalen = National elections: Parliamentary elections

 

France Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Élections et référendums des 13 oct., 10 et 24 nov. et 8 déc. 1946; résultats par département et par canton (France métropolitaine et France d'Outre mer) Avec une étude statistique des 3 référendums constitutionnels et des élections générales à l'Assemblée nationale et au Conseil de la République
  2. Elections et referendums des 21 octobre 1945, 5 mai et 2 juin 1946. Résultats par département et par canton (France métropolitaine et France d'outre mer) Avec une étude statistique du College électoral francais et de ses représentations aux deux assemblées constituantes, par Raoul Husson ..
  3. Elections législatives 1988 : résultats, analyses, et commentaires / sous la direction scientifique de Philippe Habert et Colette Ysmal
  4. Les Élections legislatives de ... / République Française, Ministère de l'intérieur

 

Germany Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Statistik der Bundesrepublik Deutschsland
  2. Wahl zum ... Deutschen Bundestag am ... / Herausgeber, Statistisches Bundesamt Wiesbaden

 

Great Britain Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Britain votes 4 : British parliamentary election results 1983-1987
  2. British parliamentary election results, 1950-1970
  3. British parliamentary election results, 1950-1973
  4. British Parliamentary election results, 1918-1949
  5. British parliamentary election results, 1974-1983
  6. British parliamentary election statistics, 1918-1968
  7. British parliamentary election results: 1950-1964
  8. British Parliamentary constituencies, 1955-1983 [electronic resource]
  9. British parliamentary election results 1832-1885
  10. British parliamentary election results, 1885-1918
  11. A Handbook Of Parliamentary Election Results, 1974-1977

 

Greece Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Apotelesmata to-n vouleutiko-n eklogo-n
  2. Statistike- to-n vouleutiko-n eklogo-n te-s 9. Septemvriou 1951 = Statistique des eléctions des députés du 9 septembre 1951
  3. Statistike- to-n vouleutiko-n eklogo-n te-s 31. Martiou 1946 = Statistique des eléctions des députés du 31 mars 1946
  4. Statistike- to-n vouleutiko-n eklogo-n te-s 16. Noemvriou 1952 = Statistique des eléctions des députés du 16 novembre 1952
  5. Statistike- to-n vouleutiko-n eklogo-n te-s 5. Martiou 1950 = Statistique des eléctions des députés du 5 mars 1950

 

Iceland Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Alþingiskosningar = Elections pour l'"Alþing."

 

India Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Elections in India : data handbook on Lok Sabha elections
  2. Elections in India : data handbook on Lok Sabha elections, 1952-80
  3. India decides : elections 1952-1991
  4. India votes : a source book on Indian elections

 

Ireland Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Election results and transfer of votes in general election (March, 1957) for Sixteenth Dáil and bye-elections to Fifteenth Dáil (1954-1957)
  2. Irish elections 1922-44 : results and analysis
  3. Northern Ireland parliamentary election results, 1921-1972
  4. Reifrinn in Éirinn, 1937-1987 = Referenda in Ireland, 1937-1987
  5. Toghcháin uachtaráin, 1938-1990 / an Roinn Comhshaoil = Presidential elections, 1938-1990
  6. Torthaí toghcháin agus aistriú na vótaí san olltoghchán (Meitheamh, 1969) don Naoú Dáil déag agus sna corrthoghcháin don Ochtú Dáil déag (1965-1969) = Election results and transfer of votes in general election (June, 1969) for Nineteenth Dáil and bye-elections to Eighteenth Dáil (1965-1969)
  7. Torthaí toghcháin agus aistriú na vótaí san olltoghchán (Feabhra, 1987) don cúigiú Dáil is fiche agus sna corrthoghcháin don ceathrú Dáil is fiche (1982-1987) = Election results and transfer of votes in general election (February, 1987) for twenty-fifth Dáil and bye-elections to twenty-fourth Dáil (1982-1987)
  8. Torthaí toghcháin agus aistriú na vótaí san olltoghchán (Feabhra, 1973) don fichiú Dáil agus sna corrthoghcháin don naoú Dáil déag (1969-1973) = Election results and transfer of votes in general election (February, 1973) for twentieth Dáil and bye-elections to nineteenth Dáil (1969-1973)
  9. Torthaí toghcháin agus aistriú na vótaí san olltoghchán (Bealtaine, 1954) don Chuigiú Dáil déag agus sna corrthoghcháin don Cheathrú Dáil déag (1951-1954) = Election results and transfer of votes in general election (May, 1954) for Fifteenth Dáil and bye-elections to Fourteenth Dáil (1951-1954)
  10. Torthaí toghcháin agus aistriú na vótaí san olltoghchán (Deireadh fómhair, 1961) don Seachtú Dáil déag agus sna corrthoghcháin don Séú Dáil déag (1957-1961) Election results and transfer of votes in general election (October, 1961) for Seventeenth Dáil and bye-elections to Sixteenth Dáil (1957-1961)
  11. Torthaí toghcháin agus aistriú na vótaí san olltoghchán (Aibreán, 1965) don Ochtú Dáil déag agus sna corrthoghcháin don Seachtú Dáil déag (1961-1965) Election results and transfer of votes in general election (April, 1965) for Eighteenth Dáil and bye-elections to Seventeenth Dáil (1961-1965)
  12. Torthaí toghcháin agus aistriú na vótaí san olltoghchán (Samhain, 1982) don cheathrú Dáil is fiche agus sna corrthoghcháin don tríú Dáil is fiche (Márta--Samhain, 1982) = Election results and transfer of votes in general election (November, 1982) for twenty-fourth Dáil and buy-elections to twenty-third Dáil (March-November, 1982)
  13. Torthaí toghcháin agus aistriú na vótaí san olltoghchán (Meitheamh, 1981) don dóú Dáil is fiche agus sna corrthoghcháin don aonú Dáil is fiche (1977-1981) = Election results and transfer of votes in general election (June, 1981) for twenty-second Dáil and bye-elections to twenty-first Dáil (1977-1981)
  14. Torthaí toghcháin agus aistriú na votaí san olltoghchán (Meitheamh, 1977) don aonú Dáil is fiche agus sna corrthoghcháin don fichiú Dáil (1973-1977) = Election results and transfer of votes in general election (June, 1977) for twenty-first Dáil and bye-elections to twentieth Dáil (1973-1977)
  15. Torthaí toghcháin agus aistriú na vótaí san olltoghchán (Feabhra, 1982) don tríú Dáil is fiche = Election results and transfer of votes in general election (February, 1982) for twenty-third Dáil
  16. Torthaí toghcháin agus aistriú na vótaí san olltoghchán (Meitheamh, 1989) don séú Dáil is fiche = Election results and transfer of votes in general election (June, 1989) for twenty-sixth Dáil

 

Israel Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Statistical bulletin of Israel
  2. Tots'ot ha-beh.irot la-Keneset ha- ...

 

Italy Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Elezioni della Camera dei deputati e del Senato della Repubblica, 26 giugno 1983 : dati sommari
  2. Elezioni della Camera dei deputati e del Senato della Repubblica : 14 giugno 1987
  3. Elezioni politiche 1979
  4. Elezioni politiche 1972
  5. Elezioni politiche 1958
  6. Elezioni politiche 1976
  7. Elezioni politiche 1963
  8. Elezioni politiche 1968
  9. Elezioni politiche 1953

 

Japan Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Asahi senkyo taikan : dai 38-kai Shu-giin so-senkyo, dai 14-kai Sangiin tsu-jo- senkyo, Sho-wa 61-nen 7-gatsu / Asahi Shinbun Senkyo Honbu hen
  2. Asahi senkyo taikan : dai 39-kai Shu-giin so-senkyo 1990-nen (Heisei 2-nen) 2-gatsu, dai 15-kai Sangiin tsu-jo- senkyo 1989-nen (Heisei gannen) 7-gatsu, zen kiroku sengo no Shu-san ryo-iin senkyo
  3. Asahi senkyo taikan : dai 40-kai Shu-giin so-senkyo 1993-nen (Heisei 5-nen) 7-gatsu, dai 16-kai Sangiin tsu-jo- senkyo 1992-nen (Heisei 4-nen) 7-gatsu, zen kiroku sengo no Shu-san ryo-iin senkyo
  4. Japan election data : the House of Representatives, 1947-1990
  5. Senkyo taikan : dai 35-kai so-senkyo, Sho-wa 54-nen 10-gatsu / Asahi Shinbun Senkyo Honbu hen

 

Luxembourg Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Bulletin Du Statec
  2. Les Elections du 10 juin 1979 au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg : élections législatives, élections européenes : analyse des résultats et des comportements
  3. Les Elections législatives du 26 mai 1974 au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg : analyse des résultats et des comportements électoraux

 

Malawi Election Statistics Publications:

  1. 1994 presidential general elections results

 

Moldova Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Republic of Moldova parliamentary elections, February 27, 1994

 

Netherlands Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Statistiek der verkiezingen. Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal
  2. Statistiek der verkiezingen. Provinciale Staten / Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek
  3. Statistiske efterretninger

 

New Zealand Election Statistics Publications:

  1. The general election
  2. New Zealand parliamentary election results, 1946-1984

 

Norway Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Stortingsvalget = Elections en ... pour le "Storting"

 

Portugal Election Statistics Publications:

  1. 1980 eleição da Assembleia da República : escrutínio provisório, resultados por freguesia, resultados por concelho e distrito/região autónoma, comparados com os de 1979 / Ministério da Administração Interna, Secretariado Técnico dos Assuntos para o Processo Eleitoral (STAPE) ; Instituto Nacional de Estatistica
  2. 1983 eleição da Assembleia da República : escrutínio provisório, resultados por freguesia, resultados por concelho e distrito/região autónoma, comparados com os de 1980 / Ministério da Administração Interna, Secretariado Técnico dos Assuntos para o Processo Eleitoral (STAPE)
  3. 1985 eleição da Assembleia da República : escrutínio provisório, resultados por freguesia, resultados por concelho e distrito/região autónoma, comparados com os de 1983 / Ministério da Administração Interna, Secretariado Técnico dos Assuntos para o Processo Eleitoral (STAPE)
  4. Eleição da Assembleia da República, 1987 : escrutínio provisório, resultados por freguesia, resultados por concelhos, distritos e regiões autónomas, comparados com os de 1985 / Ministério da Administração Interna, Secretariado Técnico dos Assuntos para o Processo Eleitoral (STAPE)
  5. Eleição da Assembleia da República, 1991 : escrutínio provisório, resultados por freguesia, resultados por concelhos, distritos e regiões autónomas, comparados com os de 1987 / Ministério da Administração Interna, Secretariado Técnico dos Assuntos para o Processo Eleitoral (STAPE)
  6. Eleição intercalar para a Assembleia da República, 1979 : escrutínio provisório dos resultados por freguesias, concelhos, distritos e regiões autónomas / Ministério da Administração Interna, Secretariado Técnico dos Assuntos para o Processo Eleitoral ; Instituto Nacional de Estatística
  7. Eleição para a Assembleia Constituinte, 1975
  8. Eleição para a Assembleia da República, 1976 : resultados por freguesias, concelhos e distritos, comparados com os de 1975

 

Spain Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Elecciones a Cortes Generales, 1986 : Congreso : resultados por municipios
  2. Elecciones a Cortes Generales, 1993 : avance (resultados provisionales)
  3. Las elecciones del cambio
  4. Elecciones generales 1977 : resultados municipios
  5. Elecciones generales, 1977-1979-1982-1986 : según actas Juntas Electorales Central y Provincias : resultados congreso por provincias
  6. Elecciones generales, 1982 : Congreso : avance de resultados por provincias y orden alfabético de municipios
  7. Elecciones generales, 1979 : Congreso : avance de resultados por provincias y orden alfabético de municipios
  8. Eleccions generals 1989

 

Sweden Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Allmänna valen
  2. Riksdagsmannavalen

 

Switzerland Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Nationalratswahlen. Elections au Conseil national

 

United States Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. elections
  2. Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. elections (2nd ed.)
  3. Congressional Quarterly's Guide to 1976 elections : a supplement to CQ's Guide to U.S. elections
  4. The international almanac of electoral history

 

Venezuela Election Statistics Publications:

  1. Los Partidos políticos y sus estadísticas electorales, 1946-1984

 

Lijphart Elections Archives Data

Australia:

Austria:

  • 1994 General Election:

Bangladesh:

Colombia:

  • 1975-1990 Lower House Election:

Czech Republic:

Dominican Republic:

Germany:

Japan:

  • 1958-1990 Lower House Elections:

Portugal:

Russia:

Spain:

St. Vincent & Grenadines:

Taiwan:

Thailand:

Trinidad & Tobago:

Turkey:

Lijphart Elections Archives Matrices

Australia: Formulaic Matrix

Austria: Formulaic Matrix

Bulgaria: Formulaic Matrix

Colombia: Formulaic Matrix

Costa Rica: Formulaic Matrix

Czech Republic: Formulaic Matrix

Denmark:Formulaic Matrix

Dominican Republic: Formulaic Matrix

Finland: Formulaic Matrix

France: Formulaic Matrix

Germany: Formulaic Matrix

Greece: Formulaic Matrix

Iceland: Formulaic Matrix

Ireland: Formulaic Matrix

Israel: Formulaic Matrix

Italy: Formulaic Matrix

Japan: Formulaic Matrix

Liechtenstein: Formulaic Matrix

Lithuania: Formulaic Matrix

Luxembourg: Formulaic Matrix

Malta: Formulaic Matrix

Netherlands: Formulaic Matrix

Norway: Formulaic Matrix

Poland: Formulaic Matrix

Portugal: Formulaic Matrix

Slovakia: Formulaic Matrix

Slovenia: Formulaic Matrix

Spain: Formulaic Matrix

Sweden: Formulaic Matrix

Switzerland: Formulaic Matrix

Turkey: Formulaic Matrix