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MMW 12: Classical and Medieval Traditions: Citing & Writing

Why Cite?

Citing your sources may seem tedious, but it's important to cite because:

  • Citations allow others to find the information you used in your research paper.
  • Citations help establish the credibility of your research.
  • Citations acknowledge the work of other scholars who have made your own research possible.
  • Citations help you avoid plagiarizing!

How to Write a Citation

Journal Article from a Database

Borgwardt, Elizabeth. “FDR's Four Freedoms as a Human Rights Instrument.” OAH Magazine of History    22.2 (2008): 8-13. Academic Search Complete. Web. 5 Dec. 2013.

In-Text Citation: (Borgwardt 9)


Book (Whole)

Foucault, Michel, Graham Burchell, Colin Gordon. The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality : with    Two Lectures by and an Interview with Michel Foucault. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991.    Print.

In-Text Citation: (Foucault, Burchell, Gordon 157)


Book (Chapter)

Moffitt, Karl. "Trends in Income Support." Changing Poverty, Changing Policies. Ed. Maria Cancian and    Sheldon Danziger. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2009. pp. 203-221. Print.

In-Text Citation: (Moffitt 217)


Electronic Book

Dodds, Ben and Richard Britnell. Agriculture and Rural Society After the Black Death: Common Themes    and Regional Variations. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press, 2008. ebrary. Web. 10 Feb. 2014.

In-Text Citation: (Dodds 45) *Many ebooks lack stable pagination. In those cases, omit the page number from the parenthetical citation.

MLA Style

MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the arts and humanities.  These resources, revised according to the 8th edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, offer examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and reference pages:

Writing Help

MLA Handbook at the Library