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Problem-based Learning & Finding the Evidence: Author-Date Citation Style Guide

Citing Images or Figures

APA Citation Style: Images

The best advice I've seen comes from Yahoo Answers - complete with reference to the APA manual.  The high points are: 

  • Add a short caption describing the image, plus
  • Add, Note: Title of book (p #), by Author [initials & last name], Year, Place of publication: Publisher. Copyright Year by Name of Copyright Holder.
  • Watch for what needs to be italicized
  • List book in the References list.

    Referencing Unpublished Works

    Information you use for your write ups must credit where that info comes from, even if it is not formally published, and could include your notes from a lecture or a personal email or letter.  A typical lecture/lecturer's handouts or slides are a bit different and can be cited much like other material.

    Numbered Style  

    Everything - email, letters, lectures - are referenced exactly the same, meaning, no bibliography entry.  Any unpublished items are referenced only in the text of the document.  The author of the info is usually mentioned in the text and the supporting information is given between parentheses.  Information needed include:

    • Date of item
    • Indicate if it was oral or written (no details on best method for that)
    • Affiliation of info giver (establish her/his relevance or authority)

    To see what that looks like, check the list of examples.


    Examples: Author Date Styles

    Book Section




    Mirowski GW, P. E. (2008). Chapter 74. biology and pathology of the oral cavity". In Wolff K, Goldsmith LA, Katz SI, Gilchrest B, Paller AS, Leffell DJ (Ed.), Fitzpatrick's dermatology in general medicine (7th ed., ). New York: McGraw Hill.



    How the Citation is Referenced (in the text of the document)


    (Mirowski GW, 2008)

    Book, Whole




    Moore, E. E., Feliciano, D. V., Mattox, K. L., STAT!Ref, & Teton Data Systems. (2008). Trauma (6th ed.)New York: McGraw-Hill, Medical Pub. Division. Retrieved from



    How the Citation is Reference (in the text of the document)


    (Moore, Feliciano, Mattox, STAT!Ref, & Teton Data Systems, 2008)

    Journal Article, Print




    Bravo, P., Edwards, A., Rollnick, S., & Elwyn, G. (2010). Tough decisions faced by people living with HIV: A literature review of psychosocial problems. AIDS Reviews, 12(2), 76-88.



    How the Citation is Referenced (in the text of the document)


    (Bravo, Edwards, Rollnick, & Elwyn, 2010)

    Journal Article, Online




    Ku, G. (2008). Learning to de-escalate: The effects of regret in escalation of commitment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 105(2), 221-232. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2007.08.002.



    How the Citation is Referenced (in the text of the document)


    (Ku, 2010)

    Web Pages


    In general, the principles are the same - the things to include areL the author, title, and date published when available. For undated materials, include the date the resource was accessedThe following is an example of a "professional" wepage.




    National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (2008).  Biofuels. Retrieved May 6, 2008 . from   


      How the Citation is Referenced (in the text of the document)


     (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2008)



    Citing images can be a bit trickyFor more details, please see the side bar above



     Cite the book or journal from which the image came.



    How the Citation is Reference (in the text of the document)  


    See the Citing Images side bar above for details

    Emails, Letters, or Personal Communications




    None -- 

    Emails and other personal communications are referenced in the text only - with no entry in the bibliography.


    How the Citation is Referenced (in the text of the document)


    Depending upon how you write, the email author's name will be either inside the parentheses or outside it.


    (V.-G. Nguyen, personal communication, September 28, 1998),  or

    T. K. Lutes wrote, …     (personal communication, April 18, 2001)

    Lecturer’s Presentation




    Ball, E. D. (2011).  Blood and Marrow Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. [Powerpoint slides]. La Jolla, USA: UC San Diego, Blood and Marrow Transplantation.


    How the Citation is Reference (in the text of the document)


    (Ball, 2011)

    Need more details or examples?


    For a different type of reference, see the Cornell Library’s guide, APA Citation Style