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LTEA 120A Chinese Films: New Chinese-Language Documentaries – Aesthetics, Politics and Ethics: How to Cite Audio-Visual Materials (e.g. films)?


Source: MLA Manual - Other Common Sources

Films or Movies

List films by their title. Include the name of the director, the film studio or distributor, and the release year. If relevant, list performer names after the director's name.

Speed Racer. Directed by Lana Wachowski and Lilly Wachowski, performances by Emile Hirsch, Nicholas Elia, Susan Sarandon, Ariel Winter, and John Goodman, Warner Brothers, 2008.

To emphasize specific performers or directors, begin the citation with the name of the desired performer or director, followed by the appropriate title for that person.

Lucas, George, director. Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. Twentieth Century Fox, 1977.

Television Shows

Recorded Television Episodes

Cite recorded television episodes like films (see above). Begin with the episode name in quotation marks. Follow with the series name in italics. When the title of the collection of recordings is different than the original series (e.g., the show Friends is in DVD release under the title Friends: The Complete Sixth Season), list the title that would help researchers to locate the recording. Give the distributor name followed by the date of distribution.

"The One Where Chandler Can't Cry." Friends: The Complete Sixth Season, written by Andrew Reich and Ted Cohen, directed by Kevin Bright, Warner Brothers, 2004.

Broadcast TV or Radio Program

Begin with the title of the episode in quotation marks. Provide the name of the series or program in italics. Also include the network name, call letters of the station followed by the date of broadcast and city.

"The Blessing Way." The X-Files. Fox, WXIA, Atlanta, 19 Jul. 1998.

Netflix, Hulu, Google Play

Generally, when citing a specific episode, follow the format below.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, season 2, episode 21, NBC, 29 Apr. 2010. Netflix,

An Entire TV Series

When citing the entire series of a TV show, use the following format.

Daniels, Greg and Michael Schur, creators. Parks and Recreation. Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2015.

A Specific Performance or Aspect of a TV Show

If you want to emphasize a particular aspect of the show, include that particular information. For instance, if you are writing about a specific character during a certain episode, include the performer’s name as well as the creator’s.

“94 Meetings.” Parks and Recreation, created by Greg Daniels and Michael Schur, performance by Amy Poehler, season 2, episode 21, Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2010.

If you wish to emphasize a particular character throughout the show’s run time, follow this format.

Poehler, Amy, performer. Parks and Recreation. Deedle-Dee Productions and Universal Media Studios, 2009-2015.


Begin with the title of the episode in quotation marks. Provide the name of the series in italics. Then follow with MLA format per usual.

“Best of Not My Job Musicians.” Wait Wait…Don’t Tell Me! from NPR, 4 June 2016,


source: Chicago Manual of Style

DVDs and videocassettes

Citations of video recordings, like citations of sound recordings, will vary according to the nature of the material. Any facts relevant to identifying the item should be included. Indexed scenes are treated as chapters and cited by title or by number. Ancillary material, such as critical commentary, is cited by author and title. Note that in the Monty Python example, the citation is of material original to the 2001 edition, so the original release date of the film (1975) is omitted.

7. Michael Curtis and Gregory S. Malins, “The One with the Princess Leia Fantasy,” Friends, season 3, episode 1, directed by Gail Mancuso, aired September 19, 1996 (Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2003), DVD.
8. “Crop Duster Attack,” North by Northwest, directed by Alfred Hitchcock (1959; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2000), DVD.
Cleese, John, Terry Gilliam, Eric Idle, Terry Jones, and Michael Palin. “Commentaries.” Disc 2. Monty Python and the Holy Grail, special ed. DVD. Directed by Terry Gilliam and Terry Jones. Culver City, CA: Columbia Tristar Home Entertainment, 2001.
Handel, George Frideric. Messiah. Atlanta Symphony Orchestra and Chamber Chorus, Robert Shaw. Performed December 19, 1987. Ansonia Station, NY: Video Artists International, 1988. Videocassette (VHS), 141 min.

Online multimedia

Citations of online multimedia must thoroughly identify the material cited by incorporating the elements discussed and exemplified throughout this section; it is never enough simply to cite an electronic file name or URL, though this information should be included as well. If no date can be determined from the source, include the date the material was last accessed. (See also 14.4–13.) If the material is a recording of a speech or other performance, or if it is a digital version of a published source, include information about the original performance or source. Whether to list information about the original or the digitized copy first will depend on the information available and is usually up to the author. Include an indication of the source type (e.g., “video”) and length. Note the idiosyncratic capitalization and spacing in the second example, preserved as an aid to identifying the source; this approach, if used at all, should be reserved for sources that have no ties to any publishing body (and any outright errors should be indicated in the text or note; see also 13.59). See also 14.27714.198. For an example of a podcast, see 14.221.

1. A. E. Weed, At the Foot of the Flatiron (American Mutoscope and Biograph Co., 1903), 35 mm film, from Library of Congress, The Life of a City: Early Films of New York, 1898–1906, MPEG video, 2:19,
2. “HOROWITZ AT CARNEGIE HALL 2-Chopin Nocturne in Fm Op.55,” YouTube video, 5:53, from a performance televised by CBS on September 22, 1968, posted by “hubanj,” January 9, 2009,
Harwood, John. “The Pros and Cons of Biden.” New York Times video, 2:00. August 23, 2008.
Pollan, Michael. “Michael Pollan Gives a Plant’s-Eye View.” Filmed March 2007. TED video, 17:31. Posted February 2008.


Source: APA Style Guide (7th edition) - Audio Visual Materials

Film or Video

Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture [Film]. Production company.
Loyd, P. (Director). (2008). Mamma mia! [Film]. Universal Pictures. 

Film or Video in Another Language 

Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture in original language [Translated title] [Film]. Production company.
Del Toro, G. (Director). (2006). El laberinto del fauno [Pan’s labyrinth] [Film]. Warner Bros. Pictures.

TV Series

Executive Producer, P. P. (Executive Producer). (Date range of release). Title of series [TV series]. Production company(s).
Sherman-Palladino, A., Palladino, D. (Executive Producers). (2017-present). The marvelous Mrs. Maisel [TV series]Dorothy Parker Drank Here Productions; Picrow, Amazon Studios.

TV Series Episode

Writer, W. W. (Writer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Original air date). Title of episode (Season number, Episode number) [Tv series episode]. In P. Executive Producer (Executive Producer), Series title. Production company(s). 
Korsh, A. (Writer & Director). (2019, September 25). One last con (Season 9, Episode 10) [TV series episode]. In D. Liman & D. Bartis (Executive Producers), Suits. Untitled Korsh Company; Universal Content Productions; Open 4 Business Productions. 

YouTube Video

Person or group who uploaded video. (Date of publication). Title of video [Video]. Website host. URL 
Tasty. (2018, March 7). 7 recipes you can make in 5 minutes [Video]. Youtube.