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CAT 1

APA Style

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social and behavioral sciences.  These resources, revised according to the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, offer examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, and reference pages:

How to Write A Citation (APA)

APA journal citation
Journal Article (Online)
Bibliography:

Brownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41(11), 1245-1283. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090560710821161

In-Text Citation: (Brownlie, 2007)

APA book citation
Book (Whole)
Bibliography:

Goodpaster, K. E., Nash, L. L., & de Bettignies, H. (2006). Business ethics: Policies and persons (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

In-Text Citation: (Goodpaster et al., 2006)

APA book chapter citation
Book (Chapter)
Bibliography:

O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: A metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). Springer.

In-Text Citation: (O'Neil & Egan, 1992)
APA online video citation
Online Video
Bibliography:

Harvard University. (2019, August 28). Soft robotic gripper for jellyfish [Video].

YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=guRoWTYfxMs

In-Text Citation: (Harvard University, 2019)

 

APA painting citation

Painting (Accessed Online)
Bibliography: van Gogh, V. (1889). The starry night [Painting]. the Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, United States. https://www.moma.org/learn/moma_learning/vincent-van-gogh-the-starry-night-1889/
In-Text Citation: (van Gogh, 1889).

 

Social Media citation

Instagram Post
Bibliography:

Obama, Barak. [@barackobama]. (2023, August 7). How the fair maps movement protected voting rights and our system of checks and balances at the Supreme Court. [book cover image]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/barackobama/ 

In-Text Citation: (Obama, 2023)

APA PowerPoint Slide citation
PowerPoint Slides from a Classroom Website
Bibliography:

Mack, R., & Spake, G. (2018). Citing open-source images and formatting references for presentations [PowerPoint slides]. Canvas@FNU. https://fnu.onelogin.com/login

In-Text Citation: (Mack & Spake, 2018)
Special Note:

If the audience you are writing for does not have access to the classroom website you're referencing, this would be cited as a personal communication. Personal communications are not included in the reference list. They are cited in the text only. Give the initial(s) and surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible, using the following format:

(R. Mack & G. Spake, personal communication, August 8, 2018)

APA lecture recording citation
Video Recording of Class Lecture
Bibliography:

Jernigan, T. (2020, April 30). Week 4: Genome wide association studies and the “curse of dimensionality” [Zoom lecture]. In T. Jernigan, COGS 178: Genes, Brains, and Behavior. UC San Diego Canvas. http://canvas.ucsd.edu

In-Text Citation: (Jernigan, 2020)
Special Note:

If the audience you are writing for does not have access to the class lecture recording you're referencing, this would be cited as a personal communication. Personal communications are not included in the reference list. They are cited in the text only. Give the initial(s) and surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible, using the following format:

(T. Jernigan, personal communication, April 30, 2020)

APA course assignment citation
Course Assignment Submitted in Canvas
Bibliography:

Gonzales, J. (2020). Week 1 journal [Unpublished manuscript]. In E. Johnston, DOC 1: Reading Diversity. UC San Diego Canvas. http://canvas.ucsd.edu

In-Text Citation: (Gonzales, 2020)
Special Note:

If the audience you are writing for does not have access to the submitted assignment you're referencing, this would be cited as a personal communication. Personal communications are not included in the reference list. They are cited in the text only. Give the initial(s) and surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible, using the following format:

(J. Gonzales, personal communication, 2020)

APA class discussion citation
Online Class Discussion Post
Bibliography:

Smattering, L. (2014, February 28). Re: Academic Integrity [Discussion post]. Walden University Blackboard. https://class.waldenu.edu

In-Text Citation: (Smattering, 2014)
Special Note:

If the audience you are writing for does not have access to the class discussion post you're referencing, this would be cited as a personal communication. Personal communications are not included in the reference list. They are cited in the text only. Give the initial(s) and surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible, using the following format:

(L. Smattering, personal communication, February 28, 2014)

APA course lecture notes
Notes from a class lecture
Bibliography:

None.

In-Text Citation: (Goldman, 2022)
Special Note:

Your own notes from a lecture are considered personal communications in APA style. They are cited within the text of your assignment, but do not get an entry on the References list. Put the citation right after a quote or paraphrased content from the class lecture.

(C. Goldman, personal communication, October 17, 2022)

Citing AI in APA style