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Preuss School: Citing & Writing

How to Write A Citation

Journal Citation
Journal Article (Online)

Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.” Historical Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-196,

In-Text Citation: (Langhamer 192)

Book Citation
Book (Whole)

Foucault, Michel, Graham Burchell, and Colin Gordon. The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality : with Two Lectures by and an Interview with Michel Foucault. University of Chicago Press, 1991.

In-Text Citation: (Foucault, Burchell, and Gordon 157)

Book Chapter Citation
Book (Chapter)

Moffitt, Karl. "Trends in Income Support." Changing Poverty, Changing Policies, edited by Maria Cancian and Sheldon Danziger, Russell Sage Foundation, 2009, pp. 203-221.

In-Text Citation: (Moffitt 217)

Newspaper Citation
Newspaper (accessed online)

St. Fleur, Nicholas. "City Bees Stick to a Flower Diet Rather Than Slurp Up Soda." The New York Times, 19 May 2016,

In-Text Citation:

(St. Fleur)

Note: This entry has no page numbers, so this information is left out of the citation.

Note: If there is no author listed, the in-text citation would include the first word or words of the title of the article in quotation marks.

Video Citation
Video (accessed online)

Sethi, Ramit. "How to Write a Winning Resume, With Ramit Sethi." YouTube, uploaded by I Will Teach You to Be Rich, 23 June 2015, 

In-Text Citation: (Sethi 00:03:30-00:04:16)

Painting (accessed online)

Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800. Museo del Prado,

In-Text Citation: (Goya The Family of Charles IV)


Social Media

Instagram Post

Obama, Barak. [@barackobama]. "How the fair maps movement protected voting rights and our system of checks and balances at the Supreme Court." Instagram, 7. Aug. 2023, 

In-Text Citation: (Obama, 2023)

MLA Style

MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the arts and humanities.  These resources, revised according to the 9th edition of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, offer examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and reference pages: