This section covers the resources to find metrics for journal articles (including preprints) and conference papers.
The "Comparing the Options" chart highlights the key features and differences among the 4 primary tools covered: Web of Science, Google Scholar, Altmetric, and Dimensions.
When using these resources, some things to consider:
Key Features of Web of Science, Google Scholar, Altmetric, and Dimensions.
|Feature||Web of Science||Google Scholar||Altmetric||Dimensions|
|Search By Author To Retrieve All (Or At Least Most) of Their Works||Yes||Works best if author has Scholar Profile||No||Yes, using the Researcher filter|
|Get an Article's Times Cited Count and List of Citing Works||Yes||Yes||No||Yes|
|Analyze Citing References by Author, Institution, Country, etc.||Yes||No||No||Yes, using the filters|
|Funding Agencies and Grants Information Included for Searching/Analysis||Yes||No||No||Yes|
|Cited Reference Searching||Yes||No||No||No|
|Non-Citation Based Metrics, Including News and Social Media||No||No||Yes||Yes|
|Metrics for Preprints||No||Yes||Yes||Yes (for SSRN and bioRxiv)|
|Set Up Alerts to Stay Notified About Who is Citing/Talking About Your Work||Yes||Yes||Yes||Save searches, but no alerting|
With each article or conference paper indexed in Web of Science, you can get a Times Cited count, the number of times the paper was cited by other works indexed in the Web of Science Core Collection (which includes the Conference Proceedings and Book Citation Indexes). From Times Cited, you can link out to see the citing works..
The Web of Science Core Collection indexes
How Do I Access Web of Science?
Go to uclibs.org/PID/12610 to access Web of Science. UC San Diego faculty, staff and students must be on the campus network, the protected WiFi network, or VPN to access.
What Else Can I Do in Web of Science?
You can analyze any set of citing papers to find out more about who cited your work. From Analyze Results, you can generate treemaps, bar graphs, and text-delimited files. The treemap/bar graph visualization allow for up to 25 results, and the text-delimited file allows for up to 500 results.
Other Metrics: Web of Science provides some additional, time-sensitive metrics.
Cited Reference Searching
The Cited Ref Searching will identify citing works that haven't been counted in the actual Times Cited count. See the WOS Cited Ref Searching tab for more information.
What Else Should I Know About Web of Science?
Coverage of the science/engineering disciplines is the strongest, and weaker in the arts/humanities. Web of Science doesn't index articles until they are assigned to an issue, so in-press, early access or ASAP (as soon as published) articles that cite your article will not be included in this Times Cited count. In 2019, Web of Science will begin indexing early access articles for selected publishers. See the tab: WOS vs Google Scholar for more about differences between the two.
Google Scholar will give you a Times Cited count, the number of times the work was cited by other sources found in Google Scholar). The Times Cited count will come up in the regular search results, or when viewing an author's works list in a Google Scholar Profile. If you're on campus or using VPN, you'll also get a link back to the citing works in Web of Science
Google Scholar covers:
What Else Can I Do in Google Scholar?
Google Scholar Profiles
Creating and building your own profile in Google Scholar is a way for other to easily find your works, and for you to view the Times Cited counts in one list. See Author-Level Metrics.
Analysis features in Google Scholar are extremely limited. You can get a breakdown of citing works by year for a particular article, when you select the article within the Profile (not within the regular search results).. .
There is no bulk export option within the search results screen. However, you can add each reference individually to My Library, by clicking on the star icon, then from My Library mark all references to export for BibTeX or EndNote.
What Else Should I Know About Google Scholar:
Why Am I Getting Different Citation Counts Between Web of Science and Google Scholar?
This is a common question: why does Web of Science show that an article was cited X times, while Google Scholar shows that the same article was cited Y times? There are a few reasons why it happens. If you were to export the citing works from Web of Science and Google Scholar for one of your articles and exclude the references that show up in both lists, this what you'll likely observe.
Which numbers should I use?
That depends. Some researchers opt for the higher of the two numbers (often the Google Scholar number), while other include both. Either way, you should include the source--Web of Science and/or Google Scholar--with the number. It's also important to be aware of why these numbers differ, and what is and is not getting counted in each.
What Is Cited Reference Searching, and Why Use It?
Cited Reference Searching is another way to find citing works in Web of Science beyond what shows up in the Times Cited list. Instead of searching for an article and then viewing the cited references from the Times Cited count, you search for any references to your work in the cited reference lists of all the works indexed in Web of Science. For the search, you usually enter an author (first author is recommended) and the year the work was published, along with the title of the publication if the search needs to be narrowed. If the article was published in one year, but added to Web of Science the next, search on years.
What Does the Cited Reference Searching Capture?
You can use the Cited Ref Search to identify
Why do these Cited Reference Variants occur?
The authors may have cited the article incorrectly, or they may have cited it when it was "in press" or even already published online, but before it was assigned to a volume/issue, so they cited it using an incomplete citation.. It could also be due to a data entry error; your article was cited correctly in a paper, but an error was made when the paper (and cited references) went into Web of Science.
Can the Cited Reference Variants be corrected?
Sometimes. You can report these errors using the Data Changes Form under the Web of Science Help menu. Select Web of Science Platform as the product group, and Cited Reference as the requested product change. To make it easier, each Web of Science record has a unique accession number to reference in your request (go to "See More Data Fields"). You can reference both the paper(s) with the citation variants, and the correct citation where these variants should be unified with. For example:
In a cited reference search, 2 variants come up for WOS:000399721700010. Can these be unified?
1 - WOS:000427767200045
2 - WOS:000411524400048
Clarivate Analytics responds to these requests quickly, and any corrections are usually made within a week. Here, the 3 variants were unified, and the Times Cited counts went from 18 and 21, to 19 and 23.
Is It Worth Looking for These Citation Variants to Report Them?
It depends. Identifying and reporting citation variants may be more meaningful for an early career researcher with a smaller and more recent body of publications than a researcher with a more substantial body of work with more citations. But this is a more time-consuming process. This might something to review once a year, or you can reach out to us to run some Cited Reference Searches and send data change requests to Clarivate.
Clarivate Training Videos:
You can get an "Altmetric Attention Score," based on online coverage, attention, and engagement outside of journal and book citations, including news, social media, patents, policy papers, and Wikipedia. The score is weighted so sources like news coverage count more than tweets. The score usually appears as an embedded "donut" or badge, with a link back to Altmetric.com with more details about sources covering your work.
Most publishers will provide the score on the article's homepage, though you may have to look around for it. It's sometimes included under "Metrics" or a similar label. If you cannot find the Altmetric donut with the score, use the Altmetric Bookmarket.
If you use any browser apps to block ads or tracking cookies (like Privacy Badger), these will often block Altmetric donuts and badges from appearing on publisher websites. If this happens, you can disable the apps for those sites.
What Else Can I Do in Altmetric?
You can access the Altmetric details page for the article by clicking the donut or badge to learn more about WHO is talking about your work. From here you can see what kind of attention your article has received: the news/media sources that covered your article, who has tweeted or blogged about it, has the article been cited in Wikipedia or any policy papers, etc. You may also get some context for the attention score, how it ranks among all works covered by Altmetric, among outputs similar in age, or even among outputs from the same journal.
On that details page, click "Alert me about new mentions" to get email notices when Altmetric captures new mentions about your output. These go out as daily digests, so you can set them up for multiple outputs and still get no more than one email per day.
What Else Should I Know About Altmetric?
In Dimensions, you can get a Citations count based on publications in the Dimensions database, some additional citation metrics (see below), AND an Altmetric attention score. From the article record, you can view a list of citing papers, any supporting grants (with links to find more articles funded by that grant), as well as any linking patents, policy papers and clinical trials indexed in Dimensions. You can also link out to the Altmetric details page to find out where your article is getting attention from news, social media, etc.
How Do I Access Dimensions? Is it Free?
Go to https://app.dimensions.ai/discover/publication to begin searching. Most of the Dimensions functionality is free, but UCSD has a license for Dimensions Plus, which has some added features, including:
To access Dimensions Plus, go to Access Free App, then Login. On the Readcube screen, enter your ucsd.edu email address to get routed back to single sign-on, where you'll enter your AD (active directory) password. Once logged in, you'll be able save and retreive searches.
What Else Can I Do With Dimensions?
You can analyze a set of search results or list of citing articles by researcher, research organization, publication type, or funder. Use the filters in the left column to limit your results. If there are more than 10 options, you can use "More" to enter an additional researcher, etc.
While logged in, you can save searches as Favorites, or export results for Excel or for visualizations using VOSviewer. No option to create email alerts.
What Else Should I Know About Dimensions?
Where Can I Find Metrics for Preprints? What Happens When the Article Is Later Published?
Metrics about use or engagement with preprints may or may not be included with those of the final published article, depending on whether the article and preprint records are unified. If there are separate records and it is clear that the citing references or mentions are not getting counted twice, then it may be worth noting that particular preprint received additional notice before it was published in a journal.
From the site where you posted your preprint, you may be able to get an Altmetric Attention Score, along with other data like abstract views and PDF downloads. For preprint servers like arXiv and SSRN that don't directly link to Altmetric, use the Bookmarklet.
Google Scholar covers all of the major preprint sites, and a preprint should be unified with the published article if there is one. To confirm, check the list under "All ## versions" for the preprint copy.
Web of Science
Web of Science does not index preprints (though INSPEC started indexing arXiv in 2015). However, you can use the Cited Reference Search to find citing references for your preprints, using the author and year fields. If you do find citations, don’t be surprised to see multiple variants for your preprint due to inconsistent citing, including typos with the preprint URLs.
Dimensions indexes preprints from SSRN (Social Sciences Research Network), bioRxiv, chemRxiv, and PeerJ. However, if the paper was subsequently published elsewhere, you may get two records (see example: bioXriv, Nature)
What Article-Level Metrics Can I Find on the Publisher Websites?
Along with the Altmetric attention score and details (either the embedded badge or using the Bookmarklet), the publisher may also provide.
What metrics can I get out of eScholarship?
If you deposit copies of your article in eScholarship and other repositories, you can usually get data like views and downloads. When you include the DOI for the final published version, it also brings in the metrics from Altmetric and Dimensions.
What Article-Level Metrics Can I Get from the Subject-Specific Databases
Some of our more specialized databases also include any citing references also indexed in that database, similar to Web of Science. However, it's very likely that the citing references will already be identified in Web of Science or Google Scholar. One possible exception: the ProQuest databases, which including any citing dissertations from the Dissertations and Theses database, some of which may not be included in Google Scholar.