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The predominate software in GIS is ArcGIS by Esri. It can be expensive and has a learning curve for users, but is extremely robust and as noted, is predominate in the GIS industry. Can be used in a desktop, server or web environment.
eCognition classifies and analyzes imagery, vectors and point clouds using all the semantic information required to interpret it correctly. Rather than examining stand-alone pixels or points, it distills meaning from the objects' connotations and mutual relationships, not only with neighboring objects but throughout various input data.
Very popular software created by Google. Easy to use for anyone comfortable with a computer and its most popular use is to locate the house where you grew up. Google Earth Pro has increased functionality, among which is the ability to make movies of 'to
Whether you are visualizing millions of rows of data, tracking assets in real time, routing fleets around traffic, or making your app look beautiful, Mapbox is a platform that powers location and lets you build the experience in your app.
This organization is specifically positioned to "support and build the highest-quality open source geospatial software". Has a great tool that helps you find an open source technology that best fits your needs.
GIS on a USB stick. This tool offers the ability to start up with a fully open source stack of GIS software on a USB stick. We can't attest to its functionality as we haven't used it personally, but it sounds extremely interesting with great potential.