Census Bureau's "By Decade" website - includes a variety of publications, questionnaires, datasets, and more
Questions asked (see questionnaire)
In 1800, assistant marshals recorded the name of the county, parish, township, town, or city in which each family resided. Each family was listed by the name of the head of the household, and was asked the following questions:
Social Explorer - remote access limited to UCSD affiliates
Find all 1800 census publications in the library catalog.
Return of the whole number of persons within the several districts of the United States [C 3.14:800]
Second Census of the United States [C 3.14:800/reprint/x]