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Census Research Guide: 1800

About the 1800 Census

Census Bureau's "By Decade" website

Includes a variety of publications, questionnaires, datasets, and more


  • 2nd decennial census
  • US population: 5,308,483

Questions asked (see questionnaire)

In 1800, assistant marshals recorded the name of the county, parish, township, town, or city in which each family resided. Each family was listed by the name of the head of the household, and was asked the following questions:

  • The number of free White males and females aged, respectively:
    • under 10 years of age
    • of 10 years but under 16 years
    • of 16 years but under 26 years
    • of 26 years but under 45 years
    • 45 years and upward
  • Number of all other free persons
  • Number of slaves

Map coverage of the 1800 census


For more information:

  • Map Guide to the U.S. Federal Censuses, 1790 - 1920


Find all 1800 census publications in the library.

Key publications:

Print available in the Library

 Online access

 Return of the whole number of persons within the several districts of the United States [C 3.14:800]

 Census Bureau

Second Census of the United States
[C 3.14:800/reprint/x