Census population schedules (also known as "name schedules" or "manuscript census") are copies of the original questionnaires collected during each decennial census. They list the individual names and family information of the people enumerated. If you're doing genealogy research, the population schedules are what you're looking for.
Unlike the statistics published soon after the census, the population schedules remain confidential for 72 years. 1950 is the most recent population schedule available.